B12 Patch B12 Patch
B12 Patch
B12 Patch
B12 Patch   B12 Patch
B12 Patch Product Information B12 Patch About Vitamin B12 B12 Patch Research B12 Patch FAQ B12 Patch Reviews B12 Patch Blog B12 Patch Contact Us B12 Patch Order B12 Patch
  

  

Posts Tagged ‘Vitamin B12 deficiency causes’

Vitamin B12 Deficiency- Can it be Genetic?

Monday, October 28th, 2013

 

 

Vitamin B12 deficiency can occur because of diet, medication, or gastrointestinal surgery, but it can also be hereditary. Genetic pernicious anemia is a cause of vitamin B12 deficiency that sometimes slips right off the radar, yet can produce debilitating symptoms of extreme fatigue, disorientation, muscular pain, and depression.

Vitamin B12 Deficiency- Can it be Genetic?

What causes vitamin B12 deficiency?

Listed are just some of the most common causes of vitamin B12 deficiency. For a more complete list, see vitamin B12 deficiency causes.

Diet

Vitamin B12 occurs naturally in animal-based food sources such as fish, chicken, beef, and dairy products. The foods that have the most vitamin B12 are shellfish and organ meats. So if you follow a vegan or vegetarian diet, then it’s vitally important to supplement with vitamin B12 in order to prevent becoming anemic.

Medications

Certain medications can inhibit your ability to digest vitamin B12 from foods; these include PPIs for acid reflux and heartburn, metformin for diabetes, and certain antidepressants.

25 Medications that Cause Vitamin B12 Deficiency

Surgery

Also, if you’ve ever had bariatric surgery (gastric bypass) or gastrointestinal surgery for Crohn’s disease, then you are required to take lifelong vitamin B12 supplements.

Autoimmune diseases

The more autoimmune disorders you have, the likelier your chances of developing new ailments caused by a weak immune system. Vitamin B12 deficiency from pernicious anemia is one such autoimmune disease that can occur alone or along with other genetic autoimmune dysfunctions.

Genetic pernicious anemia is caused by a lack of intrinsic factor, a digestive enzyme needed to absorb vitamin B12.

Pernicious anemia can occur as an autoimmune disorder, or it can develop as a comorbid condition to other autoimmune diseases, such as systemic lupus, rheumatoid arthritis, or celiac disease.

If you eat a healthy diet of lean meats and seafood, and you don’t fall into any of the above-mentioned categories, then your cause of vitamin B12 deficiency may be genetic.

Is vitamin B12 deficiency serious?

Vitamin B12 is crucial for many important biochemical responses throughout your body. Vitamin B12 aids in red blood cell formation, and also sustains healthy neurological functioning.

Vitamin B12 boosts cellular energy, supports a good metabolism, and helps to regulate levels of homocysteine, a hormone linked with heart attack and stroke.

Untreated, long-term vitamin B12 deficiency-pernicious anemia can result severe irreversible damage to your nervous system, increased risk for heart attack and stroke, cognitive impairments, and sometimes, death.

Getting tested

Off the bat, your family medical history can tell you if you’re prone to vitamin B12 deficiency from genetic pernicious anemia. If anybody in your family suffers from pernicious anemia or any autoimmune disorder, then your chances of developing severe vitamin B12 deficiency are higher than normal.

You can test for vitamin B12 deficiency easily with one blood test, but the results are not always accurate. In diagnosing vitamin B12 deficiency, your doctor should pay attention to the symptoms you’re experiencing and how well you’re responding to vitamin B12 supplementation.

Please tell us…

Do you or your parents have vitamin B12 deficiency? Have you found a genetic link to that or other autoimmune disorders?

Do you have any questions or suggestions?  Please leave your comments below.
Share with your friends!

If you found this article helpful, then please share with your friends, family, and coworkers by email, twitter, or Facebook.

Like this? Read more:


Image courtesy of ddpavumba/freedigitalphotos

I Eat Healthy…So How did I Get Vitamin B12 Deficiency?

Tuesday, June 11th, 2013

 

 

Many people who are diagnosed with vitamin B12 deficiency are surprised to learn that their vitamin B12 levels have been plummeting for years, despite exercising and following a healthy low-fat diet. Here are some risk factors for vitamin B12 deficiency, and warning symptoms that many doctors overlook.

I Eat Healthy…So How did I Get Vitamin B12 Deficiency?

Nearly half of the American population has some form of vitamin B12 deficiency, and most don’t even realize it…

Only after you go to the doctor for symptoms of tiredness, depression, memory loss, or painful numbness, and are told after taking a blood test that your vitamin B12 levels have been dropping steadily for several years does B12 deficiency finally come under the radar.

Also read: Is Vitamin B12 Deficiency a Crisis?

Why does vitamin B12 deficiency happen?

There are many risk factors for vitamin B12 deficiency, but for the most part, they can be broken down by 1) diet, and 2) vitamin B12 malabsorption.

Vitamin B12 deficiency from diet

Two out of three people diagnosed with vitamin B12 deficiency aren’t getting enough in their diets.

Vitamin B12 occurs naturally in animal-based foods, such as meat, poultry, fish, and dairy products. As a result of low-fat and vegan dieting, many of the foods that are highest in vitamin B12 have all but disappeared from the average American diet.

How often do you consume the following B12-rich foods?

  • Clams
  • Oysters
  • Crab
  • Halibut
  • Organ meats (liver, heart, kidneys)
  • Lean beef

If you follow a vegan or vegetarian diet…

If you have been advised to shun beef in favor of low-fat turkey and chicken (which have very small amounts of vitamin B12)…

Or if you consume mostly restaurant or processed foods, then you aren’t getting nearly enough vitamin B12 in your diet to prevent severe depletion by the time you reach your 30s and 40s.

Vitamin B12 malabsorption

Another third of people who suffer from severe vitamin B12 deficiency are unable to digest the nutrient efficiently from food sources.

So, even if you eat plenty of meat and fish- and even in you take regular vitamin B12 pills- you may still develop potentially life-threatening and debilitating vitamin B12 deficiency symptoms, if you fall into any of these qualifying risk factors:

  • You are over the age of 50, so unable to produce enough stomach acids to break down vitamin B12
  • You have a family history for pernicious anemia
  • You have autoimmune disorders, including an intrinsic factor antibody that occurs with pernicious anemia, preventing you from absorbing vitamin B12
  • You have had stomach or intestine surgeries, either for weight loss, treatment of ulcers, or Crohn’s disease
  • You have some form of atrophic gastritis
  • If you suffer from fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue syndrome, migraines, celiac, or other commonly comorbid conditions

What Causes Vitamin B12 Malabsorption?

Signs of vitamin B12 deficiency

Untreated, vitamin B12 deficiency can lead to severe nerve damage, increased risk for heart attack and stroke, bone loss, dementia, clinical depression, and rarely, death.

Here are some often overlooked signs that may indicate vitamin B12 deficiency:

  • Depression
  • Constant fatigue
  • Anxiety
  • Restlessness
  • Hallucinations
  • Short-term memory loss
  • Disorientation
  • Brain fog
  • Confusion
  • Headache
  • Tinnitus (ear ringing)
  • Painful numbness and tingling in the hands and feet
  • Muscle weakness and spasms
  • Burning mouth syndrome
  • Sore, red smooth tongue
  • Difficulty controlling arm and leg movements
  • Frequent falling and dropping things

Top Ten Signs of a Vitamin B12 Deficiency

Treatment

Doctors recommend at least 1,000-2,000 mcg doses of vitamin B12, taken as needed- once monthly or weekly, depending on the severity of symptoms.

Since vitamin B12 is a water-soluble nutrient, it is perfectly safe to take as much as you need in order to replenish vitamin B12 levels and alleviate symptoms that occur with vitamin B12 deficiency.

For optimum absorption and effectiveness, patients should use non-dietary vitamin B12 supplements that are secreted directly into the bloodstream, and do not require swallowing or digestion through the stomach.

Your turn!

Do you have any questions or suggestions?  Please leave your comments below.

Share with your friends!

If you found this article helpful, then please share with your friends, family, and coworkers by email, twitter, or Facebook.

Like this? Read more:

Shocking Must-See Video on Vitamin B12 Deficiency Crisis

Is Vitamin B12 Deficiency a Real Illness?

Sources:

B12: The Beautiful Molecule

Image courtesy of Ambro/freedigitalphotos

25 Medications that Cause Vitamin B12 Deficiency

Thursday, January 10th, 2013

 

 

Vitamin B12 is a lot easier to get than people realize- if you take the following medications, you may be susceptible to severe vitamin B12 deficiency, even if you include plenty of B12-rich foods in your diet.

25 Medications that Cause Vitamin B12 Deficiency- B12 Patch

Vitamin B12 (cobalamin) occurs naturally in many foods that most people eat every day; lean beef, poultry, organ meats, fish, shellfish, eggs, and dairy products all contain generous amounts of vitamin B12- enough to avoid becoming deficient.

However, there are certain medications that may interfere with your ability to extract vitamin B12 from the foods you eat, eventually resulting in a severe drop in vitamin B12 levels.

What is vitamin B12, and why is it so important?

Vitamin B12 malabsorption may occur if you currently take the following pharmaceutical drugs:

Medications that cause vitamin B12 deficiency

  1. Cholestyramine (Cholybar®, Questran®) – used to lower high cholesterol levels in the blood.
  2. Cimetidine (Tagamet®) – used to treat and prevent stomach ulcers.
  3. Clofibrate (Atromid-S®) – impairs absorption of vitamin B12 -
  4. Colchicine- (ColBenemid®) – used to prevent or treat attacks of gout (also called gouty arthritis)
  5. Co-trimoxazole- It reduces bacteria that cause infections of the urinary tract, lungs (pneumonia), ears, and intestines.
  6. Demeclocycline- an antibiotic used to treat bacterial infections.
  7. Famotidine- a histamine blocker used to treat and prevent ulcers.
  8. Fluoroquinolones- antimicrobials used to kill bacteria in pneumonia, urinary tract infections, and diarrhea.
  9. Lansoprazole- used to prevent stomach ulcers and to treat other conditions in which the stomach produces too much acid.
  10. Macrolides- antibiotics used to treat a wide range of bacterial infections.
  11. Metformin- type 2 diabetes drug, known to cause vitamin B12 deficiency.
  12. Methyldopa (Aldomet®) – reduces vitamin B12 levels, leading to a vitamin B12 deficiency.
  13. Minocycline- antibiotic used to help treat periodontal disease, acne, and inflammatory arthritis.
  14. Neomycin- antibiotic, antibacterial used topically to treat skin infections, wounds, and burns. Neomycin impairs vitamin B12 absorption and has been shown to decrease vitamin B12 levels.
  15. Nizatidine- used to treat and prevent stomach ulcers, intestinal ulcers, and acid reflux.
  16. Omeprazole (Prilosec®) -used for gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD).
  17. Oral contraceptives- oral contraceptives with high estrogen content leads to decreased levels of vitamin B12.
  18. Phenobarbital (Donnatal®, Solfoton®) -barbiturate, anticonvulsant that results in decreased levels of vitamin B6 and vitamin B12, in addition to elevated homocysteine levels. (Vitamin B12, Homocysteine, and your Heart)
  19. Phenytoin- an antiepileptic drug.
  20. Potassium chloride- used for dehydration, can be deadly in its concentrated form.
  21. Ranitidine (Zantac®) H2-receptor, heartburn medication used to suppress production of stomach acids that are necessary for digesting vitamin B12.
  22. Sulfonamides- antibiotics used to treat a wide range of bacterial infections.
  23. Tetracyclines (Achromycin®, Sumycin®, Tetra-C®, Tetracyn®, Tetralyn®, Tetram®, Tropicycline®) – antibiotics prescribed for acne.
  24. Trimethoprim- (TMP/SMX) is used to treat urinary tract infections, pneumonia, and “travelers’ diarrhea.”
  25. Valproic Acid (Depakene®) – anticonvulsant used for migraine headache prevention.

Symptoms of vitamin B12 deficiency

Because the decline is so gradual, people usually don’t realize that they’re not getting enough vitamin B12 until they begin experiencing the warning symptoms- which often arrive only when depletion is severe.

Warning signs of vitamin B12 deficiency include:

  • Constant fatigue
  • Sluggish thinking (brain fog)
  • Depression
  • Confusion
  • Difficulty concentrating
  • Memory loss
  • Painful tingling, burning, and numbness in hands and feet
  • Poor coordination
  • Muscle twitches and spasms
  • Eye problems
  • Tinnitus (ear ringing)

Your turn!

Do you have any questions or suggestions?  Please leave your comments below.

Share with your friends!

If you found this article helpful, then please share with your friends, family, and coworkers by email, Facebook, or Google+.

Like this? Read more:

Top Ten Signs of a Vitamin B12 Deficiency

Is Vitamin B12 Deficiency a Real Illness?

Sources:

Vitamin B12

Image(s) courtesy of dream designs/FreeDigitalPhotos.net

Prevent Vitamin B12 Deficiency: Beyond Nutrition

Tuesday, November 27th, 2012

 

 

It seems like it should be easy to prevent vitamin B12 deficiency. Feeling tired, tingly, and numb? No problem. Just take a few vitamin B12 pills until you get your energy back.  Unfortunately, for many, preventing vitamin B12 deficiency, i.e. pernicious anemia, is a lifelong dilemma that produces many serious health concerns.

Prevent Vitamin B12 Deficiency: Beyond Nutrition- B12 Patch

Vitamin B12- cobalamin

Vitamin B12 (cobalamin) is a crucial nutrient that is involved with many biochemical reactions in your body. Part of the B-complex set of vitamins, vitamin B12 helps to maintain normal energy levels while also supporting a healthy nervous system.

Vitamin B12 is also essential for producing red blood cells and controlling homocysteine, a hormone linked with increased risk for heart disease and stroke.

Vitamin B12 occurs naturally in animal-based foods such as meat, poultry, fish, eggs, and milk. Healthy individuals may prevent vitamin B12 deficiency by including lean beef, chicken, turkey, organ meats, seafood, and cheeses in their daily diet.

Since plant-based sources of vitamin B12 are scarce, doctors advise individuals following a strict vegan diet to prevent vitamin B12 deficiency by supplementing with daily vitamin B12 pills.

Vitamin B12 deficiency causes

Even if you are a meat-eater, you may be at risk for vitamin B12 deficiency. There are many factors- lifestyle choices or illnesses- that impair your body’s ability to digest vitamin B12 naturally from the foods that you eat.

Vitamin B12 malabsorption (inability to digest vitamin B12) is a common cause of vitamin B12 deficiency in people who consume sufficient amounts of dietary vitamin B12, either from food sources or nutritional supplements.

You may be unable to absorb vitamin B12 if you meet any of the following risk factors:

  • You have had a gastric bypass
  • You have had an ileostomy
  • You take metformin for diabetes
  • You take protein pump inhibitors (PPIs) for GERD
  • You suffer at least one autoimmune disorder
  • You vomit frequently
  • You have Crohn’s disease
  • You suffer from alcoholism
  • You are a senior citizen
  • You suffer from fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue syndrome, migraines, celiac disease, or lupus
  • You have a family history for pernicious anemia

Vitamin B12 deficiency anemia

Pernicious anemia is one of the most common causes of vitamin B12 deficiency.

A type of megaloblastic anemia, pernicious anemia occurs when your body is unable to produce intrinsic factor, a necessary digestive enzyme for absorbing vitamin B12.

There are two causes of vitamin B12 deficiency from pernicious anemia: gastritis and intrinsic factor autoimmune disorder.

Also read: Diagnosing Vitamin B12 Deficiency and Pernicious Anemia: Top 10 Tests

Vitamin B12 deficiency symptoms

Signs of vitamin B12 deficiency include severe fatigue, brain fog, depression, anxiety, and pain or numbness in the extremities, including your hands, feet, fingers, toes, and tongue.

Unless prevented, vitamin B12 deficiency can cause severe neurological damage and (rarely) death.

Also read: What are the Symptoms of Pernicious Anemia- B12 deficiency?

Can I prevent vitamin B12 deficiency?

If you have vitamin B12 deficiency caused by an autoimmune disorder, then there is no prevention. It is important to confirm the presence of the intrinsic factor antibody by taking a blood test. Routine vitamin B12 screenings are necessary in order to manage cobalamin levels and prevent debilitating symptoms of vitamin B12 deficiency.

For treating pernicious anemia and preventing vitamin B12 deficiency, you will need to take lifelong vitamin B12 supplements in a non-dietary form. These include vitamin B12 shots, sublingual tablets, or other over-the-counter (OTC) types of nonedible vitamin B12.

To prevent other types of vitamin B12, it is crucial to treat the underlying condition that is inhibiting vitamin B12 absorption.

Often, dieting, exercise, and vitamin supplementation are effective measures against obesity, diabetes, and gastrointestinal problems. By incorporating natural, alternative medicine into your daily routine, you may avoid the need for harmful pharmaceuticals or invasive surgeries that often lead to nutritional deficiencies and other health ailments.

Please tell us…

Do you have any questions or suggestions?  Please leave your comments below.

Share with your friends!

If you found this article helpful, then please share with your friends, family, and coworkers by email, Facebook, or Google+.

Like this? Read more:

Prevent Dementia: 12 Natural Vitamins and Herbs

Here’s Your Brain on B12 Deficiency- Memory Loss and Aging

Sources:

Prevent a Vitamin B12 Deficiency

Anemia – B12 deficiency

Image(s) courtesy of FreeDigitalPhotos.net

Is Vitamin B12 Deficiency an Autoimmune Disorder? Yup.

Wednesday, March 21st, 2012

 

 

If you’ve been diagnosed with vitamin B12 deficiency, you’re probably wondering, “How did this happen?”  Unless you’re a vegan or a gastric bypass patient, it’s possible that vitamin B12 deficiency resulted from an autoimmune disorder that causes pernicious anemia.

IS VITAMIN B12 DEFICIENCY AND AUTOIMMUNE DISORDER? YUP. B12 PATCH

Vitamin B12 deficiency- what are the symptoms?

Vitamin B12 is essential for maintaining your nervous system, psychological health, and your metabolism.  Pernicious anemia causes a wide range of debilitating symptoms that interfere with daily life, and is one cause of B12 deficiency.

Symptoms of vitamin B12 deficiency-pernicious anemia may include:

  • Everyday fatigue, despite sleeping well
  • Brain fog- confusion
  • Impaired concentration
  • Impaired memory
  • Depression
  • Anxiety
  • Mood swings
  • Irritability
  • Painful numbness and tingling in hands and feet
  • Tingling or burning sensation in mouth and tongue
  • Slower reflexes
  • Difficulty walking normally
  • Stomach upset
  • Infertility or frequent miscarriages and stillbirths

IS VITAMIN B12 DEFICIENCY AND AUTOIMMUNE DISORDER? YUP. B12 PATCH

Vitamin B12 deficiency- what are the causes?

There are many reasons why an individual may develop vitamin B12 deficiency.  First off, if you eat a diet rich in sources of vitamin B12, including beef, poultry, fish, and milk, then you should not under any normal circumstances become deficient in vitamin B12 levels.

  • Following a vegan diet is a major risk factor for vitamin B12 deficiency.  Vitamin B12 occurs naturally in animal-based foods, the richest sources being liver, shellfish, and many lean meats.  Unless you supplement your vegan diet with vitamin B12, then you will eventually become depleted, as few plant-based products are infused with substantial amounts of vitamin B12.
  • Certain lifestyle choices may interfere with vitamin B12 absorption, including stomach or intestinal surgery (such as gastric bypass), alcohol abuse, and using certain B12-inhibiting medications (such as metformin or protein pump inhibitors [PPIs]).
  • Gastrointestinal diseases, in addition to other diseases that include GI malfunction, may cause vitamin B12 deficiency.  These include Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis, celiac disease, fibromyalgia, migraine disorder, and chronic fatigue syndrome.
  • The elderly do not produce enough stomach acid to digest vitamin B12 fully, so they are a separate risk group for vitamin B12 deficiency.
  • If none of the above-mentioned risk factors pertain to you, then it’s entirely possible that you suffer from an autoimmune disorder that prevents you from absorbing vitamin B12 from dietary sources.  Autoimmune pernicious anemia may take decades to develop and typically goes unnoticed until you reach your thirties or forties.


Vitamin B12 deficiency from autoimmune disorder

In order to get vitamin B12 into your blood supply, you need certain digestive enzymes to help you access vitamin B12 from the foods you eat.  Intrinsic factor is that necessary enzyme that your body uses to absorb vitamin B12.

For some people, certain antibodies interfere with intrinsic factor, causing your immune system to malfunction.  If you have one of the antibodies that interfere with vitamin B12 absorption, then you will never be able to digest vitamin B12, no matter how many hamburgers or fish dinners you eat in your lifetime.

“I’ve heard of the X Factor and Fear Factor…But what’s Intrinsic Factor?”

Three types of antibodies cause vitamin B12 deficiency- pernicious anemia.  They include:

  • Parietal cell antibody, which prevents the production of intrinsic factor in the stomach.
  • Intrinsic factor antibody, type 1, which prevents the bonding of vitamin B12 to intrinsic factor.  About 50%-60% of pernicious anemia patients have this type of antibody.
  • Intrinsic factor antibody, type 2, which allows bonding of vitamin B12 to intrinsic factor, but prevents bonding with receptor from the ileum (the bottommost part of your small intestine).

If you’ve been tested for vitamin B12 deficiency, it’s important that you also take a blood test for the pernicious anemia antibody.  Many doctors overlook this important screening, so you might need to ask for it.

Vitamin B12 deficiency autoimmune disorder requires vitamin B12  from non-oral sources, such as vitamin B12 injections, which are available only through prescription.

Please tell us…

Have you tested for vitamin B12 deficiency, but not for the intrinsic factor or parietal cell antibodies?

If you get vitamin B12 shots…do you still experience pernicious anemia symptoms like fatigue, memory loss, brain fog, and nerve pain?

Questions or comments?  Please let us know!

Share with your friends!

If you found this helpful, then please share with your friends, family, and coworkers by email, Facebook, or Google+.

Read more about pernicious anemia:

Diagnosing Vitamin B12 Deficiency and Pernicious Anemia: Top 10 Tests

WhichTests check Absorption of Vitamin B12?

Vitamin B12- How much do you need?

Sources:

Symptoms of Vitamin B12 Deficiency

Studies on Antibody to Intrinsic Factor

Images:

euthman, David Castillo Dominici

Juvenile Vitamin B12 Deficiency- the Dinosaur of all Disorders, say Scientists

Monday, December 19th, 2011

 

 

Recently, scientists discovered an ancient mutant gene putting vitamin B12 deficiency around the timeline of 11,600 B.C., causing a rare form of vitamin B12 anemia known as Imerslund-Gräsbeck Syndrome (IGS) – the second-oldest disease-causing mutant gene known to mankind.

What causes Imerslund-Gräsbeck syndrome (IGS)?

According to researchers, mutations in either the amnionless (AMN) or the cubilin (CUBN) gene cause this rare form of vitamin B12 deficiency (IGS), which inhibits vitamin B12 absorption in children born with either mutated gene.  Children born with IGS lack intrinsic factor, a chemical required to digest vitamin B12 in food sources, such as beef, chicken, fish, cheese, and eggs, and eventually show symptoms of severe juvenile cobalamin deficiency.  This discovery adds to our knowledge that B12 deficiency is an inherited disorder.

What is vitamin B12, and why is it so important?

What are the symptoms of Imerslund-Gräsbeck syndrome (IGS)?

IGS originated in the Middle East, affecting children of Jewish, Turkish, or Arabic descent.  Children with (IGS) vitamin B12 deficiency exhibit the following symptoms:

  • Increased risk for infection
  • Everyday fatigue, regardless of diet or sufficient sleep
  • Difficulty concentrating, symptoms similar to Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD)
  • Partial paralysis

Untreated, childhood vitamin B12 deficiency can also lead to severe nerve damage.  A blood test is required to diagnose vitamin B12 deficiency anemia, and treatments include constant vitamin B12 injections, as prescribed by your physician- possibly for the rest of your life.

Top Ten Signs of a Vitamin B12 Deficiency

Who is at risk for getting vitamin B12 deficiency?

Aside from individuals with the inherited vitamin B12 deficiency disorder, other people that are at risk for vitamin B12 deficiency include:

  • Anybody who has had gastrointestinal surgery, such as gastric bypass,  involving the removal of the ileum, a portion of the small intestines required for vitamin B12 absorption
  • Anybody taking medications that inhibit absorption of vitamin B12, including the diabetes drug Metformin, acid reflux medication, antibiotics, and anti-inflammatory medications
  • Vegans who don’t supplement with vitamin B12 regularly
  • Many patients of autoimmune disorders that affect the stomach, such as fibromyalgia, Crohn’s disease, or celiac disease
  • Alcoholics
  • Elderly individuals who lack sufficient stomach acids to digest vitamin B12

Read more about vitamin B12 deficiency causes:

Brain Drain Medications- Drugs that Drain the B12 out of you

Pernicious Anemia: Your 13 Most Frequently Asked Questions, Answered!

Sources:

Scientists Discover Second-Oldest Gene Mutation

Ancient founder mutation is responsible for Imerslund-Gräsbeck Syndrome among diverse ethnicities


Home | Shipping & Return Policy | Privacy Policy | Product Information | Research | Order Now | Customer Reviews | Site Map | Affiliate Program
B12 Patch